For Ivan, a man who said he’s an officer in Russia’s reserves and left his country for Belarus on Thursday, the motivation was clear: “I don’t support what’s going on, so I just decided that I had to leave right away,” he told CNN.
“I felt like the doors are closing and if I didn’t leave immediately, I might not be able to leave later,” Ivan said, adding he was thinking of a close friend back home with two little children who, unlike him, was unable to pack up and go.
Alexey, a 29-year-old who arrived in Georgia from Russia via bus on Thursday, told CNN the decision was due in part to his roots.
“(Half of) my family is Ukrainian … I am not in reserves now, for this wave of mobilization, but I think if this goes on, all the men will be qualified,” he said.
The announcement unleashed a scramble for some Russians, with social media chatter on platforms like Telegram exploding with people frantically trying to figure out how to get seats in vehicles headed to the borders, with some even discussing going on bicycle.
Long lines of traffic formed at land border crossings into several countries, according to video footage. Images on Kazakh media websites appeared to show vehicles backed up near the Russia-Kazakhstan border. In one, posted by Kazakh media outlet Tengri News, a person can be heard saying their vehicle has been “at a standstill for 10 hours” in Russia’s Saratov region, as they try to make their way to Kazakhstan.
“Endless cars. Everyone is running. Everyone is on the run from Russia,” the person in the video can be heard saying. CNN cannot independently verify the videos.
On Thursday, Kazakhstan’s National Security Committee released a statement saying the borders were “under special control” but operating normally amid an “increase in the number of foreign citizens” entering the country. The number of passenger vehicles entering Kazakhstan from Russia had increased 20% since September 21, the country’s State Revenue Committee said in a separate statement.
On Finland’s eastern border with Russia, traffic intensified overnight on Thursday, according to the Finnish border guard. Earlier that day, Finland’s Prime Minister Sanna Marin told Parliament her government was ready to take action to put “an end” to Russian tourism and transit through Finland, according to Finnish public broadcaster Yle.
Many of those leaving appeared to be men. Women are not part of Russia’s description.
At least two Russians who left the country, one via land and one via air, told CNN that departing men were being questioned by Russian authorities, with queries including whether they had had military training and others about Russia and Ukraine.
“It was like a regular passport control, but every man at the queue was stopped and asked additional questions. They took a bunch of us to a room and asked questions mainly about (our) military (training),” Vadim, a Russian who arrived in Georgia via air, CNN told.
Inside Russia’s borders the mobilization that some were aiming to escape appeared to already be underway.
Social media videos showed the first phase of the partial mobilization in several Russian regions, especially in the Caucasus and the Far East, far from Russia’s wealthy metropolitan areas.
In the Russian Far East city of Neryungi, families said goodbye to a large group of men, as they boarded buses, as seen in footage posted in a community video channel. Many people are visibly emotional in the video, including a woman crying and hugging her husband goodbye, while he reaches for his daughter’s hand from the bus window.
Another shows a group of about 100 newly mobilized soldiers waiting at Magadan Airport in the Russian Far East, next to a transport aircraft. Telegram videos showed another mobilized group of men awaiting transport, purportedly in Amginskiy Uliss in the region of Yakutiya, a vast Siberian territory.
Much nearer the Ukrainian border, a crowd was gathered near the city of Belgorod to see off a batch of newly mobilized men. As they get on a bus, a boy shouts out “Bye, Daddy!” and starts crying. CNN has not been able to independently verify the videos.
In other scenes circulating on social media, tensions around the conscription ran high.
In Dagestan in the Caucasus, a furious argument broke out at one enlistment office, according to one video. A woman said her son had been fighting since February. Told by a man that she should not have sent him, she replied: “Your grandfather fought so that you could live,” to which the man responded: “Back then it was war, right now it is politics.”
Defiance and detention
Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky on Thursday called on Russians to protest against the partial military mobilization.
Thousands of Russian soldiers “died in this war in six months. Tens of thousands are wounded and maimed. Want more? No? Then protest. Fight back. Run away. Or surrender to Ukrainian captivity. These are options for you to survive,” Zelensky said in his daily video address to his country.
Addressing anti-war protests that broke out across Russia on Wednesday, the Ukrainian leader said: “(Russian people) understand that they have been cheated.”
But dissent is typically swiftly crushed in Russia and authorities have placed further constraints on free speech following the invasion of Ukraine.
Some of those protesters were immediately drafted into the military following their arrests, according to the group’s spokeswoman Maria Kuznetsova, who told CNN by phone on Wednesday that at least four police stations in Moscow some of the arrested protesters were being conscripted.
Earlier this week, Russia’s lower house of parliament, the State Duma, amended the law on military service, setting the jail term to up to 15 years for violation of military service duties — such as desertion and evasion from service, according to state news agency TASS.
Ivan, the reservist who spoke to CNN after leaving the country this week, described the feeling of hopelessness felt by many in Russia in the wake of recent events.
“It feels bad because a lot of my friends, a lot of people don’t support the war and they feel threatened by what is going on, and there is no democratic way to really stop this, to even declare your protest,” he said.
Yulia Kesaieva, Lauren Kent, Sugam Pokharel, and Anastasia Graham Yooll contributed to this report.